DECLARATION OF RIGHTS OF THE LABORING AND EXPLOITED PEOPLE
1. Russia is declared to be a republic of the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants'
Deputies. All the central and local power belongs to these soviets.
2. The Russian Soviet Republic is organized on the basis of a free union of free nations, as
a federation of soviet national republics.
3. Bearing in mind as its fundamental problem the abolition of the exploitation of men by
men, the entire abolition of the division of the people into classes, the suppression of
exploiters, the establishment of a socialist society, and the victory of socialism in all lands,
the Third All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies
(a) For the purpose of attaining the socialization of land, all private property in
land is abolished, and the entire land is declared to be national property and is to
be apportioned among agriculturists without compensation of the former owners,
to the measure of each one's ability to till it.
(b) All forests, treasures of the earth, and waters of general public utility, all
equipment whether animate or inanimate, model farms and agricultural
enterprises, are declared to be national property.
(c) As a first step toward complete transfer of ownership to the Soviet Republic
of all factories, mills, mines, railways, and other means of production and
transportation, the soviet law for the control of workmen and the establishment
of a Supreme Soviet of National Economy is hereby confirmed so as to insure
the power of the workers over the exploiters.
(d) With reference to international banking and finance, the Third Congress of
Soviets is discussing the soviet decree regarding the annulment of loans made by
the Government of the Czar, by landowners and the bourgeoisie, and it trust that
the Soviet Government will firmly follow this course until the final victory of the
international workers' revolt against the oppression of capital.
(e) The transfer of all banks to the ownership of the Workers' and Peasants'
Government, as one of the conditions of the liberation of the toiling masses from
the yoke of capital, is confirmed.
(f) Universal obligation to work is introduced for the purpose of eliminating the
parasitic strata of society and organizing the economic life of the country.
(g) For the purpose of securing the working class in the possession of complete
power, and in order to eliminate all possibility of restoring the power of the
exploiters, it is decreed that all workers be armed, and that s Socialist Red Army
be organized and the propertied class disarmed.
4. Expressing its fixed resolve to liberate mankind from the grip of capital and imperialism,
which flooded the earth with blood in its present most criminal of all wars, the Third
Congress of Soviets fully agrees with the Soviet Government in its policy of abrogating
secret treaties, of organizing on a wide scale the fraternization of the workers and peasants
of the belligerent armies, and of making all efforts to conclude a general democratic peace
without annexations or indemnities, upon the basis of the free determination of peoples.
5. It is also to this end that the Third Congress of Soviets insists upon putting an end to the
barbarous policy of the bourgeois civilization which enables the exploiters of a few chosen
nations to enslave hundreds of millions of the working population of Asia, of the colonies,
and of small countries generally.
6. The Third Congress of Soviets hails the policy of the Council of People's Commissars in
proclaiming the full independence of Finland, in withdrawing troops from Persia, and in
proclaiming the right of Armenia to self-determination.
7. The Third All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants'
Deputies believes that now, during the progress of the decisive battle between the
proletariat and its exploiters, the exploiters should not hold a position in any branch of the
Soviet Government. The power must belong entirely to the toiling masses and to their
plenipotentiary representitives- the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies.
8. In its effort to create a league- free and voluntary, and for that reason all the more
complete and secure- of the working classes of all the peoples of Russia, the Third
Congress of Soviets merely establishes the fundamental principles of the Federation of
Russian Soviet Republics, leaving to the workers and peasants of every people to decide
the following question at their plenary sessions of their soviets, namely, whether or not they
desire to participate, and on what basis, in the Federal government and other Federal